Cilt 2, Sayı 6, Sayfalar 453 - 464 2016-12-26

A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK TO EXPLORE THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING EXPERIENCES OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS IN MALAYSIA

Noor Saazai Mat Saad [1] , Harison Hanisa Mohd Sidek [2] , Hazleena Baharun [3] , Mohd Mudzafar Idrus [4] , Melor Md Yunus [5]

217 371

This conceptual paper addresses the information lacuna in the amalgamation between the areas of language learning strategies and international students in Malaysia. Malaysia is considered a hybrid or mixed setting environment where English as a Second Language (ESL) meets English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Thus in dissecting the big areas of language learning strategies and international students in relation to Malaysia, it gives rise to four notions – hybrid environment, agency, out-of-class language learning strategies and acculturation strategies. Underpinned by tenets derived from four flagship theories/model – Experiential Learning Theory by Kolb, Sociocultural Theory by Vygotsky, Social Cognitive Theory by Bandura, and Second Language Acquisition Model by Ellis – a framework is conceptualised. The conceptual framework elucidates the interplay of the four notions and their connections which will inform the main purpose of the study that is to explore the English language learning experiences of the international students in Malaysia. 

conceptual framework,international students,language learning strategies,Malaysia
  • Adel, A. R. (2011). Effects of L2 proficiency and gender on choice of language learning strategies by university students majoring in English. Asian EFL Journal Quarterly, 13(1), 114-162.
  • Alavi, M., & Mansor, S. M. S. (2011). Categories of Problems among International Students in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 1581-1587. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.307
  • Andrade, M. S. (2006). International students in English-speaking universities: Adjustment factors. Journal of Research in International Education, 5(2), 131-154.
  • Arkoudis, S., & Love, K. (2008). Imagined communities in senior school mathematics: Beyond issues of English language ability. The Asia Pacific Communication: Special issue Chinese students: Perspectives on their social, cognitive, and linguistics investment in English medium interaction, 18 (1), 71-90.
  • Arkoudis, S., & Tran, L.T. (2007). International students in Australia: Read ten thousand volumes of books and walk ten thousand miles. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 27(2), 157-169.
  • Atkinson, D. (2011). A sociocognitive approach to second language acquisition: How mind, body, and world work together in learning additional languages. In: Atkinson, D. (ed.). Alternative approaches to second language acquisition. New York: Routledge, 143–166.
  • Ballard, B. & Clanchy, J. (1997). Teaching international students : A brief guide for lecturers and supervisors, Deakin: IDP Education Australia.
  • Bandura, A. (2001). Social Cognitive Theory: An Agentic Perspective. Annual Review Psychology, 52, 1-26.
  • Bandura, A. (2005). The evolution of social cognitive theory. In K. G. Smith & M. A. Hitt (Eds.), Great Minds in Management (pp. 9-35). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Bandura, A. (2006). Toward a Psychology of Human Agency. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1(2), 164-180.
  • Beard, C., & Wilson, J. P. (2007). Experiential Learning: A Best Practice Handbook for Educators and Trainers (2nd ed.). New Delhi: Kogan Page.
  • Bell, M. (2008). Exploring fieldwork for study abroad sojourners. In M. Hellsten & A. Reid (Eds.), Researching international pedagogies (pp. 129- 150), Dordrecht : Springer.
  • Bernat, E., Davies, M., & Ritchie, C. (2009). Language learning strategies of international students: Five Australian universities investigated. A study funded by Australian Learning & Teaching Council (A. L. T. Council, Trans.). Australia.
  • Berry, J.W. (2005). Acculturation: Living successfully in two cultures. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29, 697-712.
  • Berry, J.W., Kim, U., Minde, T., & Mok, D. (1987). Comparative studies of acculturative stress. International Migration Review, 21(3), 491-511.
  • Bialystok, E. (1978). A theoretical model of second language learning. Language Learning 28: 69-83.
  • Birrel, B. (2006). Implications of low English standards among overseas students at Australian universities. People and Place, 14(4), 53-64.
  • Bradley, D., & Bradley, M. (1984). Problems of Asian students in Australia: Language, culture and education. Canberra: Government Publishing Service.
  • Caroll, J. (2005). 'Lightening the load': Teaching in Enlgish, learning in English. In J. Caroll & J. Ryan (Eds.), Teaching International Students: Improving Learning for all (pp. pp. 35-42). NY: Routledge.
  • Cuthbert, D., Smith, W., & Boey, J. (2008). What do we really know about the outcomes of Australian international education? A critical review and prospectus for future research. Journal of Studies in International Education, 12, 255-275.
  • Davies, B. (1990). Agency as a form of discursive practice. A classroom scene observed. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 11(3), 341-361.
  • Dawson, J., & Hacket, J. (2006). Developing service quality for international students. Paper presented at the Australian International Conference 2006. Retrieved February 15, 2010, from www.idp.com/aiec
  • Doherty, C., & Singh, P. (2005). How the West is done: Simulating Western pedagogy in a curriculum for Asian international students. In P. Ninnes & M. Hellsten (Eds.), Internationalizing higher education: Critical explorations of pedagogy and policy (pp. pp. 53-74). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre.
  • Ellis, R. (1994). The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • El-Saleh, A. H. E.-O. (2002). Language Learning Strategies employed by Jordanian Secondary School Students Learning English as a Foreign Language. PhD, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
  • English Language History (n.d) Retrieved 18 August 2012, 2012, from http://www.englishlanguageguide.com/english/facts/history
  • Ferman, T. (2003). Ways forward in developing the writing skills of international students. In A. J. Liddicoat, S. Eisenchlas & S. Trevaskes (Eds.), Australian perspectives on internationalising education (pp. pp. 39-52). Melbourne: Language Australia.
  • Foo, B., & Richards, C. (2004). English in Malaysia. RELC Journal, 35(2), 229-240.
  • Gao, X. (2006). Understanding changes in Chinese students’ uses of learning strategies in China and Britain: A socio-cultural re-interpretation. System, 34(1), 55-67. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2005.04.003
  • Gao, X., Cheng, H. & Kelly, P. (2008). Supplementing an uncertain investment? Mainland Chinese students practicing English together in Hong Kong. The Asia Pacific Communication: Special issue Chinese students: Perspectives on their social, cognitive, and linguistics investment in English medium interaction, 18 (1), 9-29.
  • Green, J. M., & Oxford, R. (1995). A closer look at learning strategies, L2 proficiency, and gender. TESOL Quarterly, 29(2), 261-297.
  • Griffiths, C. (2003). Patterns of language learning strategy use. System, 31(3), 367-383. doi: 10.1016/s0346-251x(03)00048-4
  • Gu, M. (2008). Identity construction and investment transformation: College students from non-urban areas in China. The Asia Pacific Communication: Special issue Chinese students: Perspectives on their social, cognitive, and linguistics investment in English medium interaction, 18 (1), 49-70.
  • Gu, Y. (2002). Gender, Academic Major, and Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Chinese Efl Learners. RELC Journal, 33(1), 35-54. doi: 10.1177/003368820203300102
  • Guilfoyle, A. M., & Harryba, S. (2009). Understanding Seychelles internationa students' social and cultural experiences during transition to an Australian university. The International Journal of Learning, 16(11), 1-22.
  • Gul, V., & Kolb, S. (2009). Acculturation, bicultural identity and psychiatric morbidity in young Turkish patients in Germany. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry. 1-7.
  • Harman, G. (2005). Internationalization of Australian higher education: A critical review of literature and research. . In P. Ninnes & M. Hellsten (Eds.), Internationalizing higher education: Critical explorations of pedagogy and policy (pp. pp. 119-140). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre.
  • Hellsten, M. (2008). Researching international pedagogy and the forming of new academic identities. In M. Hellsten & M. Reid (Eds.), Researching international pedagogies (pp. pp. 83-98). Dordrecht: Springer.
  • Irgin, P. (2011). Listening strategies used by Turkish students learning English as a foreign language: The development of 'Listening Strategy Inventory'. Master, Mersin University, Turkey, Mersin.
  • Izawati @ Siti Zawiyah, I. (2008). English Language Strategies Used by Polytechnic Students. Master, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
  • Jiang, M., Green, R. J., Henley, T. B., & Masten, W. G. (2009). Acculturation in relation to the acquisition of a second language. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 30(6), 481-492.
  • Johari Afrizal. (2005). Language Learning Strategies of EFL University Students at an Indonesian Private University. Master, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
  • Kamarul Shukri, Mohamed Amin, Nik Mohd Rahimi, & Zamri. (2009). Language learning strategies and motivation among religious secondary school students. The International Journal of Language Society and Culture(29), 71-79.
  • Kashefian-Naeeini, S., & Nooreiny, M. (2010). A Study of the Use of Language Learning Strategies among Students in Iran. Malaysian Journal of ELT Research, 6, 195-233.
  • Kashefian-Naeeini, S., Nooreiny, M., & Hadi, S. (2011). Malaysian ESL Learners’ Use of Language Learning Strategies. Paper presented at the 2011 International Conference on Humanities, Society and Culture, Singapore.
  • Kerr, I. (2011). Championing the MY Education Brand. Paper presented at the The 15th Malaysia Education Summit 2011, Bandar Sunway, Malaysia.
  • Khairi, O. A.-Z., & Rechards, C. (2010). Arab Postgraduate Students in Malaysia: Identifying and overcoming the cultural and language barriers. Arab World English Journal, 1(1), 107-129.
  • Kolb, A. Y., & Kolb, D. A. (2005). Learning styles and learning spaces: Enhancing experiential learning in higher education. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 4(2), 193-212.
  • Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development: Prentice-Hall.
  • Kolb, D. A., Boyatzis, R. E., & Mainemelis, C. (2000). Experiential Learning Theory: Previous research and new directions. In R. J. Sternberg & L. F. Zhang (Eds.), Perspectives on Cognitive, Learning, and Thinking Styles. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Lantolf, J. P. (2000). Introducing Sociocultural Theory Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning (pp. 1-26). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Lee, K. O. (2003). The relationship of school year, sex and proficiency on the use of learning strategies in learning English of Korean junior high school students. ASIAN EFL Journal, 1-36.
  • Lee, S. K., Lee, K. S., Wong, F. F., & Azizah, Y. A. (2010). The English language and its impact on identities of multilingual Malaysian undergraduates. GEMA Online™ Journal of Language Studies, 10(1), 87-102.
  • Macaro, E. (2006). Strategies for Language Learning and for Language Use: Revising the Theoretical Framework.The Modern Language Journal, 90(3), 320-337.
  • Mamour, C. T. (2008). The relevance and implications of Vygotsky's sociocultural theory in the second language classroom. ARECLS, 5, 244-262.
  • Manjula, J., & Slethaug, G. (2011). The Business of Education : Improving International Student Learning Experiences in Malaysia. Paper presented at the 14th International Business Research Conference, Dubai UAE.
  • Manprit Kaur, & Mohamed Amin Embi. (2011). The relationship between language learning strategies and gender among primary school students. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 1(10), 1432-1436. doi: 10.4304/tpls.1.10.1432-1436
  • Model for success? Malaysia’s recent initiatives to enhance the international competitiveness of its higher education system. (2008) The Observatory on borderless higher education (pp. 1-3). London.
  • Mohamed Amin Embi. (2000). Language learning strategies: A Malaysian context. Bangi: Fakulti Pendidikan.
  • Mohamed Amin, E. (1996). Language learning strategies employed by secondary school students learning English as a foreign language in Malaysia. PhD, University of Leeds.
  • Mohd Taib, H. D., Nik Rahila, D. W. I., Sharimllah, D. R., Anisah, K., & Mohd Shamsuri, M. S. (2009). A study on factors that influence choice of Malaysian institution of higher learning for international graduate students. Journal of Human Capital Development, 2(1), 105-115.
  • MoHE (Ministry of Higher Education). (2010). Data Makro Pengajian Tinggi. Retrieved from www.mohe.gov.my/web_statistik/.
  • Morshidi, S. (2008). The impact of September 11 on international student flow into Malaysia: Lessons learned. IJAPS, 4(1), 79-95.
  • Mousavi, H. S., & Kashefian-Naeeini, S. (2011). Academic Writing Problems of Iranian Post-Graduate Students at National University of Malaysia (UKM). European Journal of Social Sciences, 23(4), 593-603.
  • Murugesan, V. (2003). Malaysia promotes excellence in English. ESL Magazine, 26-28.
  • Myles, C., & Cheng, L. (2003). The social and cultural life of non-native English speaking international graduate students at a Canadian university. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 2, 247-263.
  • Nada, M. S. (2006). The Role of Motivation, Gender, and Language Learning Strategies in EFL Proficiency. Master, American University of Beirut, Beirut.
  • Noor Saazai, M.S., Melor M.Y, & Mohamed Amin, E. (2012). Research on international students in traditional
  • host countries and Malaysia: Some potential areas in Malaysia. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on University Teaching and Learning (InCULT) 2012, Concorde Hotel, Shah Alam, 20- 21 November 2012.
  • Novera, I. A. (2004). Indonesian postgraduate students studying in Australia: An examination of their academic, social and cultural experiences. International Education Journal, 5(4), 475-487.
  • O’Malley, J.M. & Chamot, A.U. (1990). Learning Strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Oxford, R. L. (2011a). Teaching and researching language learning strategies. Great Britain: Pearson Educational Limited.
  • Oxford, R. L. (2011b). Strategies for learning a second or foreign language. Language Teaching 44(02): 167-180.
  • Oxford, R. L. (1996). Preface: Why is culture important for language learning strategies? In R. L. Oxford (Ed.), Language Learning Strategies Around the World: Cross-Cultural Perspectives (pp. ix-xv). Honolulu: University of Hawaii.
  • Oxford, R.L. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. Rowley: Newsbury House.
  • Pavlenko, A. & Blackledge, A. (2004). Negotiation of Identities in Multilingual Contexts. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.
  • Pawapatcharaudom, R. (2007). An investigation of Thai students’ English language problems and their learning strategies in the international program at Mahidol University. Master, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok.
  • Pierce, B.N. (1995). Social identity, investment, and language learning. TESOL Quarterly, 29(1), 9-31.
  • Rohaizat, B., Zubaidah, A., & Siti Falinda, P. (2011). International students choice criteria for selection of higher learning in Malaysian private universities. African Journal of Business Management, 5(12), 4704-4714.
  • Rohana, J., Yong Zulina, Z., Huam, H. T., & Abdul Hafaz, N. (2010). International Students' Views of Malaysian Higher Education. Paper presented at the Internationalisation and Marketing of Higher Education Malaysia Seminar : Bringing the World to Malaysia and Malaysia to the World, Putrajaya.
  • Sakurai, T., McCall-Wolf, F., & Kashima, E. S. (2009). Building intercultural links: The impact of a multicultural intervention programme on social ties of international students in Australia. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 1-10.
  • Sawir, E. (2005). Language difficulties of international students in Australia: The effects of prior learning experience. International Education Journal, 6(5), 567-580.
  • Sayers, J., & Franklin, T. (2008). Culture shock! Cultural issues in a tertiary course using reflective techniques. Reflective Practice, 9(1), 79-88.
  • Schmidt, G. & Jansen, L. M. (2003). Enhancing overseas study. In A.J. Liddicoat, S. Eisenchlas & S.Trevaskes (Eds.), Australian perspectives on internationalising education (pp. 129-140), Melbourne: Language Australia.
  • Shmais, W. A. (2003). Language learning strategy use in Palestine. TESL-EJ, 7(2).
  • Su, M. M. (2005). A study of EFL technological and vocational college students’ language learning strategies and their self-perceived English proficiency.Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 2(1), 44-56. Retrieved from http://e-flt.nus.edu.sg/
  • Tanahashi, S. (2009). Language learning strategies and the Japanese student. Journal of Bunkyo Gakuin University, 9, 123-131.
  • Thirusanku, J., & Yunus, M. M. (2012). The Many Faces of Malaysian English. ISRN Education, 2012, 1-14. doi: 10.5402/2012/138928
  • Thompson, F. (2009), May 23. Campus crimes. Newcastle Herald, p.4.
  • Tragant, E., & Victori, M. (2012). Language learning strategies, course grades, and age in EFL secondary school learners. Language Awareness, 1-16. doi: 10.1080/09658416.2011.609622
  • Trent, J. (2008). Promoting investment by Chinese learners in classroom discourse: Integrating content and language in the undergraduate classroom. The Asia Pacific Communication: Special issue Chinese students: Perspectives on their social, cognitive, and linguistics investment in English medium interaction, 18(1), 30-48.
  • Trevaskes, S., Eisenchlas, S. & Liddicoat, A. J. (2003). Language, culture and literacy in the internationalization process of higher education. In A.J. Liddicoat, S. Eisenchlas & S. Trevaskes (Eds.), Australian perspectives on internationalising education (pp. 1-12), Melbourne: Language Australia.
  • Vann, R. J., & Abraham, R. G. (1990). Strategies of unsuccessful language learners. TESOL Quarterly, 24(2), 177-198.
  • Verbik, L., & Lasanowski, V. (2007). International Students Mobility: Patterns and Trends The Observatory on borderless higher education. London.
  • Vygotsky, L. (1978). Interaction Between Learning and Development Mind and Society (pp. 79-91). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Wu, I.-J. (2011). Learning strategies use by International Students from Taiwan in a university context: A case study. Master, California State University, Chico.
  • Yusliza Mohd. Yusoff, & Chelliah, S. (2010). Adjustment in international students in Malaysian public university. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 1(3), 275-278.
  • Zainurin, D., & Muhamad Abduh. (2011). Factors influencing international students' choice towards universities in Malaysia. African Journal of Business Management, 5(26), 10615-10620.
  • Zamri Mahamod. (2004). Strategi pembelajaran bahasa Melayu di kalangan pelajar sekolah menengah. Doctoral Thesis, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
  • Zuria, M., Salleh, A., Saemah, R., & Noriah, M. I. (2010). Challenges for International Students in Malaysia: Culture, Climate and Care. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 7, 289-293. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.10.040
Konular Sosyal ve Beşeri Bilimler
Dergi Bölümü Makaleler
Yazarlar

Yazar: Noor Saazai Mat Saad
E-posta: nmatsaad@gmail.com
Ülke: Malaysia


Yazar: Harison Hanisa Mohd Sidek
E-posta: harison@usim.edu.my
Ülke: Malaysia


Yazar: Hazleena Baharun
E-posta: hazleena@usim.edu.my
Ülke: Malaysia


Yazar: Mohd Mudzafar Idrus
E-posta: muzhafar@usim.edu.my
Ülke: Malaysia


Yazar: Melor Md Yunus
E-posta: melor@ukm.my
Ülke: Malaysia


Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ijaedu281043, journal = {International E-Journal of Advances in Education}, issn = {}, address = {OCERINT International Organization Center of Academic Research}, year = {2016}, volume = {2}, pages = {453 - 464}, doi = {10.18768/ijaedu.281043}, title = {A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK TO EXPLORE THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING EXPERIENCES OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS IN MALAYSIA}, language = {en}, key = {cite}, author = {Mat Saad, Noor Saazai and Idrus, Mohd Mudzafar and Yunus, Melor Md and Baharun, Hazleena and Sidek, Harison Hanisa Mohd} }
APA Mat Saad, N , Sidek, H , Baharun, H , Idrus, M , Yunus, M . (2016). A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK TO EXPLORE THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING EXPERIENCES OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS IN MALAYSIA. International E-Journal of Advances in Education, 2 (6), 453-464. DOI: 10.18768/ijaedu.281043
MLA Mat Saad, N , Sidek, H , Baharun, H , Idrus, M , Yunus, M . "A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK TO EXPLORE THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING EXPERIENCES OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS IN MALAYSIA". International E-Journal of Advances in Education 2 (2016): 453-464 <http://ijaedu.ocerintjournals.org/issue/26677/281043>
Chicago Mat Saad, N , Sidek, H , Baharun, H , Idrus, M , Yunus, M . "A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK TO EXPLORE THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING EXPERIENCES OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS IN MALAYSIA". International E-Journal of Advances in Education 2 (2016): 453-464
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK TO EXPLORE THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING EXPERIENCES OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS IN MALAYSIA AU - Noor Saazai Mat Saad , Harison Hanisa Mohd Sidek , Hazleena Baharun , Mohd Mudzafar Idrus , Melor Md Yunus Y1 - 2016 PY - 2016 N1 - doi: 10.18768/ijaedu.281043 DO - 10.18768/ijaedu.281043 T2 - International E-Journal of Advances in Education JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 453 EP - 464 VL - 2 IS - 6 SN - -2411-1821 M3 - doi: 10.18768/ijaedu.281043 UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.18768/ijaedu.281043 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 International E-Journal of Advances in Education A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK TO EXPLORE THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING EXPERIENCES OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS IN MALAYSIA %A Noor Saazai Mat Saad , Harison Hanisa Mohd Sidek , Hazleena Baharun , Mohd Mudzafar Idrus , Melor Md Yunus %T A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK TO EXPLORE THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING EXPERIENCES OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS IN MALAYSIA %D 2016 %J International E-Journal of Advances in Education %P -2411-1821 %V 2 %N 6 %R doi: 10.18768/ijaedu.281043 %U 10.18768/ijaedu.281043