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Yıl 2016, Cilt 2, Sayı 6, 404 - 417, 09.12.2016
https://doi.org/10.18768/ijaedu.280569

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Amer, M. (2009). The Egyptian Youth Labor Market School-to-Work Transition 1988-2006. In R. Assaad (Ed.), The Egyptian Labor Market Revisited. Cairo, New York: The American University in Cairo Press.
  • Arum, R., Gamoran, A., & Shavit, Y. (2007). More Inclusion Than Diversion: Expansion, Differentiation, and Market Structure in Higher Education. In Y. Shavit, R. Arum, A. Gamoran, & G. Menahem (Eds.), Stratification in Higher Education. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Barone, C. (2011). Some Things Never Change: Gender Segregation in Higher Education across Eight Nations and Three Decades. Sociology of Education, 84(2), 157–176.
  • Blossfeld, H. P., & Shavit, Y. (1993). Persisting Barriers: Changes in Educational Opportunities in Thirteen Countries. In Y. Shavit & H.-P. Blossfeld (Eds.), Persistent Inequality: Changing Educational Attainment in Thirteen Countries. Boulder, San Fransisco, Oxford: Westview Press.
  • Bradley, K. (2000). The Incorporation of Women into Higher Education: Paradoxical Outcomes? Sociology of Education, 73(1), 1-18.
  • CAPMAS (2012). Egypt Statistical Yearbook.
  • Charles, M., & Bradley, K. (2002). Equal but Separate? A Cross-National Study of Sex Segregation in Higher Education. American Sociological Review, 67(4), 573-599.
  • Charles, M., & Bradley, K. (2009). Indulging Our Gendered Selves? Sex Segregation by Field of Study in 44 Countries. American Journal of Sociology, 114(4), 924–976.
  • Deer, C. (2005). Higher Education Access and Expansion: the French Experience. Higher Education Quarterly, 59, 230-241.
  • Elbadawy, A. (2009). Education at a Glance: Selected Indicators Based on the Egypt Labor Market Surveys of 1988, 1998, and 2006. In The Egyptian Labor Market Revisited, edited by R. Assaad. Cairo, New York: The American University in Cairo Press.
  • Elbadawy, A., Ahlburg D., Assaad R., & Levison D. (2007). Private and Group Tutoring in Egypt: Where is the Gender Inequality? Economic Research Forum (ERF).
  • El-Kogali, Safaa. (2002). Women and Work in Egypt: A Decade of Change. In The Egyptian Labor Market in an Era of Reform, edited by R. Assaad. Cairo, New York: The American University in Cairo Press.
  • El-Mahdi, Rabab & Philip Marfleet. (2009). Egypt: The Moment of Change. London: Zed Books.
  • Halsey, A.H., A.F. Heath, & J.M. Ridge. (1980). Retrospect and Prospect. In Origins and Destinations: Family, Class, and Education in Modern Britain. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Jacobs, J. A. (1995). Gender and Academic Specialties: Trends among Recipients of College Degrees in the 1980s.Sociology of Education, 68,81-98.
  • Lewis, D.R. & Dundar H.. (2002). Equity Effects of Higher Education in Developing Countries: Access, Choice, and Persistence. In Higher Education in the Developing World: Changing Contexts and Institutional Responses, edited by D. W. Chapman and A. E. Austin. London: Greenwood Press.
  • MoHE.(n.d). Higher Education in Egypt Country Review Report. Retrieved from Cairo
  • Raftery, A. E. & Michael Hout. (1993). Maximally Maintained Inequality: Expansion, Reform, and Opportunity in Irish Education, 1921-75. Sociology of Education, 66, 41-62.
  • Richards, A. (1992). Higher Education in Egypt. Population and Human Resources Department. The World Bank.
  • Sabh, M. (2005). Economic Reform Policies and their Effect on the Status of Women in Arab Countries. In Arab Women and Economic Development, edited by H. Handoussa. Cairo: The Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development. The Arab Monetary Fund.
  • Said, M. (2009). The Fall and Rise of Earnings and Inequality in Egypt: New Evidence from the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey 2006. In The Egyptian Labor Market Revisited, edited by R. Assaad. Cairo, New York: The American University in Cairo Press.
  • Szyliowicz, J. S. (1973). Education and Modernization in the Middle East Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
  • UNESCO. (2012). International Standard Classification of Education ISCED 2011. Institute for Statistics, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Montreal, Quebec.
  • Waterbury, J. (1983). The Egypt of Nasser and Sadat: The Political Economy of three regimes. Princeton, NJ: University Press.

GENDER DISTRIBUTION IN UNDERGRADUATE FIELDS OF STUDY: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION ACROSS FOUR TIME PERIODS IN EGYPT

Yıl 2016, Cilt 2, Sayı 6, 404 - 417, 09.12.2016
https://doi.org/10.18768/ijaedu.280569

Öz

Higher education is very important in today's modern society. To promote equal opportunity to access higher education, several countries, including Egypt, have long implemented egalitarian policies to allow equitable access to it. Some studies, examining trends of gender bias in higher education, provided evidence of improvement during the past few decades. This enhancement, however, failed to reduce the sex segregation in the labour market, and hence returns to education. Many studies attributed this paradox to gender differentiation by field of study, particularly along the humanistic-scientific dimension. Barone (2011), however, suggested the care-technical dimension to contribute, as a second dimension, in the explanation of the association between gender and field of study. Since no research on this important topic has been conducted in Egypt, the current study aims to investigate gender distribution by field of study in higher education in Egypt since the 1952 revolution. To achieve this objective, the study first reviews prior literature to identify the trend in female higher education enrolment in the Egyptian context across four historical time periods characterized by significant changes in the social, economic, and educational circumstances. Next, the study investigates gender bias in higher education across the four time periods and nine fields of study using a sample of 3826 respondents from the latest round of the Egypt Labour Market Panel Survey (ELMPS 2012). Multinomial logistic regression results suggest that the expansion in higher education enrolment as a result of the adopted egalitarian policies were accompanied with an increase in female enrolment percentage since the 1952 Egyptian revolution. Moreover, there is a trend toward gender parity for most fields of study because the degree of gender imbalance varies considerably within the humanistic-scientific dimension, providing some support for the argument made by Barone (2011). A supplementary analysis investigates the gender distribution by faculty social prestige in Egypt. Results contend that females are becoming over-represented in higher education in Egypt but do not hold an advantage in the high prestige faculties.

Kaynakça

  • Amer, M. (2009). The Egyptian Youth Labor Market School-to-Work Transition 1988-2006. In R. Assaad (Ed.), The Egyptian Labor Market Revisited. Cairo, New York: The American University in Cairo Press.
  • Arum, R., Gamoran, A., & Shavit, Y. (2007). More Inclusion Than Diversion: Expansion, Differentiation, and Market Structure in Higher Education. In Y. Shavit, R. Arum, A. Gamoran, & G. Menahem (Eds.), Stratification in Higher Education. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Barone, C. (2011). Some Things Never Change: Gender Segregation in Higher Education across Eight Nations and Three Decades. Sociology of Education, 84(2), 157–176.
  • Blossfeld, H. P., & Shavit, Y. (1993). Persisting Barriers: Changes in Educational Opportunities in Thirteen Countries. In Y. Shavit & H.-P. Blossfeld (Eds.), Persistent Inequality: Changing Educational Attainment in Thirteen Countries. Boulder, San Fransisco, Oxford: Westview Press.
  • Bradley, K. (2000). The Incorporation of Women into Higher Education: Paradoxical Outcomes? Sociology of Education, 73(1), 1-18.
  • CAPMAS (2012). Egypt Statistical Yearbook.
  • Charles, M., & Bradley, K. (2002). Equal but Separate? A Cross-National Study of Sex Segregation in Higher Education. American Sociological Review, 67(4), 573-599.
  • Charles, M., & Bradley, K. (2009). Indulging Our Gendered Selves? Sex Segregation by Field of Study in 44 Countries. American Journal of Sociology, 114(4), 924–976.
  • Deer, C. (2005). Higher Education Access and Expansion: the French Experience. Higher Education Quarterly, 59, 230-241.
  • Elbadawy, A. (2009). Education at a Glance: Selected Indicators Based on the Egypt Labor Market Surveys of 1988, 1998, and 2006. In The Egyptian Labor Market Revisited, edited by R. Assaad. Cairo, New York: The American University in Cairo Press.
  • Elbadawy, A., Ahlburg D., Assaad R., & Levison D. (2007). Private and Group Tutoring in Egypt: Where is the Gender Inequality? Economic Research Forum (ERF).
  • El-Kogali, Safaa. (2002). Women and Work in Egypt: A Decade of Change. In The Egyptian Labor Market in an Era of Reform, edited by R. Assaad. Cairo, New York: The American University in Cairo Press.
  • El-Mahdi, Rabab & Philip Marfleet. (2009). Egypt: The Moment of Change. London: Zed Books.
  • Halsey, A.H., A.F. Heath, & J.M. Ridge. (1980). Retrospect and Prospect. In Origins and Destinations: Family, Class, and Education in Modern Britain. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Jacobs, J. A. (1995). Gender and Academic Specialties: Trends among Recipients of College Degrees in the 1980s.Sociology of Education, 68,81-98.
  • Lewis, D.R. & Dundar H.. (2002). Equity Effects of Higher Education in Developing Countries: Access, Choice, and Persistence. In Higher Education in the Developing World: Changing Contexts and Institutional Responses, edited by D. W. Chapman and A. E. Austin. London: Greenwood Press.
  • MoHE.(n.d). Higher Education in Egypt Country Review Report. Retrieved from Cairo
  • Raftery, A. E. & Michael Hout. (1993). Maximally Maintained Inequality: Expansion, Reform, and Opportunity in Irish Education, 1921-75. Sociology of Education, 66, 41-62.
  • Richards, A. (1992). Higher Education in Egypt. Population and Human Resources Department. The World Bank.
  • Sabh, M. (2005). Economic Reform Policies and their Effect on the Status of Women in Arab Countries. In Arab Women and Economic Development, edited by H. Handoussa. Cairo: The Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development. The Arab Monetary Fund.
  • Said, M. (2009). The Fall and Rise of Earnings and Inequality in Egypt: New Evidence from the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey 2006. In The Egyptian Labor Market Revisited, edited by R. Assaad. Cairo, New York: The American University in Cairo Press.
  • Szyliowicz, J. S. (1973). Education and Modernization in the Middle East Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
  • UNESCO. (2012). International Standard Classification of Education ISCED 2011. Institute for Statistics, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Montreal, Quebec.
  • Waterbury, J. (1983). The Egypt of Nasser and Sadat: The Political Economy of three regimes. Princeton, NJ: University Press.

Ayrıntılar

Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Menatalla Abdalla Bu kişi benim
Egypt


Ray Langsten Bu kişi benim
Egypt

Yayımlanma Tarihi 9 Aralık 2016
Başvuru Tarihi 23 Aralık 2016
Kabul Tarihi 18 Eylül 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2016, Cilt 2, Sayı 6

Kaynak Göster

EndNote %0 International E-Journal of Advances in Education GENDER DISTRIBUTION IN UNDERGRADUATE FIELDS OF STUDY: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION ACROSS FOUR TIME PERIODS IN EGYPT %A Menatalla Abdalla , Ray Langsten %T GENDER DISTRIBUTION IN UNDERGRADUATE FIELDS OF STUDY: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION ACROSS FOUR TIME PERIODS IN EGYPT %D 2016 %J IJAEDU- International E-Journal of Advances in Education %P 2411-1821-2411-1821 %V 2 %N 6 %R doi: 10.18768/ijaedu.280569 %U 10.18768/ijaedu.280569

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